Non Cooperation Movement 1920 was against of Government of India Act 1919 (Rowlett Act 1919), and Britisher’s ambiguous policies.
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- Non copperation movement was the first non-violent and first mass movement in the world.
- The main reason for the noncooperation movement was the ambiguous policies of the British government.
- Every person was unsatisfied with the Britishers’ ambiguous policies.
- The famine and epidemic spread out everywhere due to the economic crisis.
- On these troubled days, the British government presented the Roulette Act in 1919.
Government of India Act 1919 (Rowlett act)
This act got the name black Law (Kala Kanoon) by Indians. All Indians oppose this act everywhere, so the strike takes place.
Mahatma Gandhi has established “Satyagraha Sabha”.
In this committee against Rawllet Act. The other member of this committee is – Lal das, Dwarka das, Shankar Lal, Umarsomani, B.G. Harniman, etc.
Jallianwala bagh Tragedy- 13 April 1919
The Jallianwala Bagh incident occurred on 13 April 1919 at Jallianwala Bagh (Amritsar) on the occasion of Baisakhi.
- A meeting held at the Jallianwala Bagh (Amritsar) for showing objection against Act 1919 (Rowlett Act 1919), and Britisher’s ambiguous policies.
- General dier took a cruel action to stop this meeting. General dier ordered the army to shot them.
- Many numbers of people die in that cruel action of general dier.
- So, Mahatma Gandhi got heated by this cruel activity of the British empire and general dier.
- The result was that Mahatma Gandhi presents non cooperation Movement proposal in the Congress session at Calcutta in September 1920.
- Gandhi’s non cooperation movement proposal passed with a high volume of votes.
- For investigating jaliyawala kand, a hunter committee was established. Lord hunter (committee president) lead this committee. In this committee, 8 members were included. Among these members, 5 are Britishers (Lord hunter, justice sir George raking, W. F. Rise, major general sir George Merrow, sir Tomos smith) and 3 are Indians (Chiman Seetalwad, Sahabjada, Sultan Ahmad, Jagat Narayan).
- Indian National Congress also established a committee for jallianwala incident. The president of this committee was Madan Mohan Malviya. Other members of this committee were- Motilal Nehru, Mahatma Gandhi, Abbas Taiyab Ji, C.R. Das, Pupul Jaikar.
Chauri Chaura Incident
When non cooperation movement is there on a peak point, then the Chauri Chaura incident takes place.
- Chouri chaura incident takes place in Chauri-Chaura (Gorakhpur).
- In this incident, non cooperation movement was converted as violence.
- In this incident, one police station officer and 21 soldiers burnt to death by agitators.
- So, mahatma Gandhi got hearted due to chauri chaura incident. Mahatma Gandhi decided to stop this non cooperation Movement.
- After canceling this movement, many leaders opposed to Gandhi Ji.
Facts of non cooperation movement proposal
- To abandon degrees and immoral positions.
- boycott the schools, colleges, and Government courts
- To abandon foreign goods
- To accept indigenous goods
Non Cooperation Movement Stages
- The period of the first stage of non cooperation movement was from January to March 1921.
- In this stage, Gandhi Ji and Ali brothers work together for a nationwide public relations mission.
- Both requested to abandon government-controlled education institutions.
- Both requested to advocate for abandoning the court. So, many advocates abandoned the court like- C. R. Das, Motilal Nehru, Vallabh Bhai Patel, M. R. Jaikar, etc.
- Abandoned foreign goods
- Accept indigenous goods
- In some places, lit the holi with foreign clothes.
- In this Movement, an interesting fact was- strike on toddy shop.
Second Stage (Non Cooperation Movement 1920)
- In this movement, the second stage period was from March to July 1921.
- The second stage was related to collecting, increment in the number of candidates, distribution of spinning wheel.
- Tilak swaraj kos was also established and this kos collect 1 crore rupees.
Third Stage (Non Cooperation Movement 1920)
- The third stage starts from July 1921 to November 1921.
- Boycott the foreign garments
- Boycott of the arrival of Prince of wails.
- Provided the permission of provincial societies to civil disobedience
- Gandhi Ji evocated to volunteers for filling the jail
- Some violence occurred in Bambai.
Fourth Stage (Non Cooperation Movement 1920)
- Government take the support of coerciveness
- C.R. Das and other leaders were arrested.
- The government tried to divide Gandhi Ji and the leaders of Khilafat.
- On 5 February 1922, one police station officer and 21 soldiers burnt to death by agitators. So, mahatma Gandhi got hearted due to chauri chaura incident. Mahatma Gandhi decided to stop this non cooperation Movement.
FAQ’s (UPSC, PSC, SSC)
Ans: Lord Hunter
Ans: Mahatma Gandhi
Ans: Mahatma Gandhi
Ans: Rowlet Act