Air Pollution Essay: A Complete Notes for All Exams

According to WHO the air quality of Delhi is deteriorating day by day during the last decade. Just a situation we all need to join our hands and look for solutions to tackle this problem.

The main most effective Air Pollutants are:-

  • Sulfur Oxides
  • Carbon monoxide
  • Nitrogen Oxide
  • Carbon dioxide
  • Methane
  • Benzene
  • Lead
  • Cadmium
  • Chlorofluorocarbons

Carbon monoxide (CO)

Air Pollution Essay: When we inhale it, the oxygen-carrying capacity of the hemoglobin decreases completely. As result, humans got death. CO is heavier than air, insoluble in water, odorless, tasteless, and colorless gases. The percentage of Carbon monoxide available 50% of all air pollutants. This pollutant is famous as Strangulating Gas. The ability of carbon monoxide action with hemoglobin compared with oxygen is 250 times more than oxygen.

There is frustration in breathing in air containing excess carbon monoxide and eventually, death asphyxia can also occur. Therefore, never burn a coal stove in a closed room during winter.

Nitrogen Oxide (NO2)

It is Colorless and odorless and intense red-brown odor nitrogen oxides and nitrogen dioxide gases.

Although nitrogen is the main nutrient for plants, nitrogen oxides leave harmful effects. Nitrogen oxides take reaction with the moisture of the atmosphere and nitric acid (HNO3) produced. This moisture comes to the ground in the form of acid rain on the surface with rainwater. This acid rain is very harmful to all living organisms. Nitrogen oxides originate from the burning of mineral oils and coal.

Due to the excessive concentration of nitric oxide in the human body, he suffers from many diseases, such as swelling of gums, bleeding, pneumonia, lung cancer, etc.

Nitrogen oxides emitted from supersonic jets flying at high altitudes. Then the ozone layer in the stratosphere, resulting in the risk of more ultraviolet rays coming to the surface. During this process, ‘photochemical’ Smog ‘is also formed. In, photochemical Smog nitrogen oxides interact in the presence of sunlight to produce nitrogen dioxide, ozone, and peroxyl acetyl nitrate (PAN), collectively known as ‘photochemical smog’. They are harmful to plants and animals.

Chlorofluorocarbons (CFC)

Chloro fluoro Carbon (CFC) is mostly damaging the ozone layer. These are simple compounds of chlorine, fluorine, and carbon elements. Sprays, air conditioners, Refrigerators, foam, plastics, firefighters and cosmetics, etc.

Due to emission and their arrival in the atmosphere, the stratospheric ozone gas and layer decay begin. As a result, the ultraviolet rays of the Sun are higher on the surface of the surface.
Due to the increase in temperature, many types of environmental changes start to occur and the chances of skin cancer are increased in fair-skinned people.

Sulfur dioxides (SO2)

Air Pollution Essay: Sulfur dioxide (SO2) is the second most important pollutant of air pollution. atmosphere. SO2 consists of about 20% of the total value of all air pollutants. The major sources of SO2, man-made sources are thermal power plants (by coal), mineral oil refineries, and automated vehicles. These three sources together contribute 50% to the pollution of air from human-generated sources. SO2 increases irritation in the eyes. This causes asthma, cough, lung disease, headache, dizziness, etc.

SO2 is also called Cracking Gas because if it is continuously flown on a stone it becomes deformed. The Mathura oil refinery was the cause of the destruction of the Taj Mahal in Agra. So due to the formation of toxic smog in industrial areas may cause many types of diseases to occur in humans. The produced SO2 gas absorbs atmospheric moisture to produce sulfuric acid (H2SO4). When this sulfuric acid falls with rain, then is generally called acid rain. This causes irreparable damage to agricultural crops, forests, aquatic organisms, and the human community.

Due to this, corrosion occurs in buildings, and layer by layer of bricks resembles red powder. 

Carbon dioxide (CO2)

This is an important resource because the green plant CO, through photosynthesis.
They make their own diet. But when the concentration of CO increases in the atmosphere, many Problems arise. As a result of two major reasons, the amount of CO in the atmosphere is increasing rapidly.

As- (1) Release of CO in the atmosphere in greater quantity due to combustion of fossils at an increasing rate.
(ii) In the use of CO due to degradation of forest areas due to rapid forest destruction.

When the concentration of CO increases then the greenhouse effect affected (it increase the temperature of the lower atmosphere and surface). Consequently, a decrease in rainfall and soil moisture, an increase in acidity of ocean water, snow caps, and Disastrous events such as the melting of continental glaciers is taking place. It is known that CO2 is responsible for about 60% of global warming by greenhouse gases.

Methane (CH4)

Methane gases also increase the greenhouse effect of the atmosphere (contributing 20%). Its production has two sources. Paddy fields, coal mines, and domestic animals are human sources of methane emissions into the atmosphere, while wetlands and seas are natural sources of methane emissions. The highest 76% of global methane emissions from natural sources are emitted from wetlands. ‘Increasing the concentration of methane in the stratosphere leads to an increase in water vapor which is a greenhouse effect. Due to this, there is a temperature rise on the lower atmosphere and the surface.


Cadmium particles act as Respiratory Poison. These cause heart disease and increase blood pressure. Cadmium acts as a toxin and increases blood pressure and causes a number of cardiovascular diseases. The plants used for biological feed poisoning poisonous, causing the death of the animals eating it.

Lead (Glass)

The lead emitted as a result of industrial activities should be in the atmosphere as dust
goes. This lead combines with the oxygen of the atmosphere to form a lead oxide which is inhaled.
By reaching the body, it has a harmful effect on the Nervous System. Due to which brain diseases and damage to kidneys and other organs. Upon reaching the body, the lead is easily absorbed into the blood, causing Accumulated Lead Poisoning, which manifests brain damage, paralysis of muscles, and dizziness.


Some aromatic compounds in petrol get proper octane values ​​in the absence of lead such as benzene, toluene, and xylene are added. Combustion of these aromatic compounds results in the release of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHS) and suspended particulate matter (SPM). The highest amount of these aromatic compounds is benzene, which is highly carcinogenic. Benzene Causes blood cancer (Leukemia).

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